By Ranko Matasović
This grammar can be used with a few warning, not just since it used to be written via a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it truly is mostly compilatory in nature, and lots of examples have been drawn from the prevailing works on Kabardian through M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. notwithstanding, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, particularly from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even if i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the information are often very varied from these within the on hand literature. i've got attempted to strategy the Kabardian language from a typological viewpoint, evaluating its linguistic gains, which could look unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to comparable beneficial properties present in different languages of the area.
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Additional info for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
Remain "I am leaving you my gold" (= "I am making my gold remain for you") 54 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian II. CONJUNCTIVITY (COMITATIVE) The prefix expressing conjunctivity (Rus. -af. -af. -af. "The old man drank sour milk with the guests" Note that haś'axa "guests" is in the Ergative in the preceding example, which shows that the applied argument has the status of the oblique, rather than direct object/undergoer. poss. -eat 54 A genetically cognate comitative/conjunctivity prefix exists in the other NW Caucasian languages, cf.
In informal terms, the actor is the most "active" of the arguments of a particular verb, while the undergoer is the least active argument. 38 About this see e. g. ) 1978: 59. 40 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian Adyghean languages. Klimov uses the term ''diffuse'' or ''labile'' verbs for those verbs which can be used both in a transitive and an intransitive construction; this category comprises verbs meaning "to sow", "to graze", "to plow", "to knit", "to embroider", "to weave", etc. 39. These seem to be mostly verbs the first argument of which (the agent) is always a human being or a person, while the second argument (the patient) is inanimate.
Kabardian verbal morphology is extremely complex. Prefixes and suffixes are used to express different verbal categories, and there is also apophony (regular root vowel alternation). The verb does not have the category of voice (it does not distinguish active and passive), 34 but it does have the categories of transitivity, person, number, tense, mood, causative, two types of applicatives (version/benefactive (Rus. versija) and conjunctivity/comitative (Rus. sojuznost')), reflexivity, reciprocity, involuntative, and evidentiality.