By Herbert E. Spiegel
This quantity, edited for the final time by means of H.E. Spiegel, keeps the target of increasing the highbrow horizon of medical chemistry. The fields of analytical, anatomical, sub-cellular and molecular sciences are all represented during this quantity. * certain stories by way of working towards scientists * Covers a huge variety of medical chemistry on a theoretical and useful foundation * contains effortless to learn chapters combining technology and views in a altering medical panorama
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On the other hand, there are many drawbacks of bioassays. First, there is poor speciﬁcity due to the pleiotropic and redundant actions of cytokines. Second, there is inherent variability with the use of living organisms, ex vivo tissue sections, or isolated cells or cell lines. Third, cytokine bioassays are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Four, most data from cell line assays form sigmoid curves, making interpretation difﬁcult. Finally, there may be a loss of cell line sensitivity and reactivity to cytokines during cell culture (H16).
In contrast, the percentage of IFN-γ -producing Th cells assessed by the FastImmune Cytokine System (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA) was signiﬁcantly higher in normal control subjects than asthmatic patients, but the percentage of IL-4-producing Th cells did not differ (W16). Consequently, the Th1/Th2 cell ratio was signiﬁcantly higher in normal subjects than in asthmatic patients. Based on these ﬁndings, allergic asthma is characterized by an elevation of both proinﬂammatory and Th2 cytokines.
F6. , Pin, J. , T cell interleukin-17 induces stroma cells to produce proinﬂammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. J. Exp. Med. 183, 2593–2603 (1996). F7. , Chemokines induce eosinophil degranulation through CCR-3. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106, 507–513 (2000). F8. , Decreased Th1-like and increased Th2-like cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 27, 219–224 (1998). CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF CYTOKINE ASSAYS 37 G1. , Izotova, L. , Mirochnitchenko, O. , Peat, J. , Donnelly, R. , and Kotenko, S.