By Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman
In Answering Questions the authors current a precis of the most recent study at the concepts and techniques used for uncovering the cognitive and communicative procedures utilized in answering survey questions. these within the fields of social and behavioral technology, survey and advertising study, team of workers and application overview, mental and academic checking out, and numerous different fields will locate this a realistic, resource.
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Additional info for Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communicative Processes in Survey Research
Crackling, frying, clicking, humming, buzzing, other] 3. How often did this problem occur in the last thirty days? Would you say seldom, sometimes, often, or almost always? Most telephone experiences are low involvement events for residential customers and, as these examples suggest, the experiences mentioned in the questionnaire are usually low frequency events as well. Consequently, there was some managerial concern that the GSQ survey might be eliciting inaccurate responses and providing poor quality information for policy decisions.
In this segment the interviewer omits any mention of the other categories in Question 25B-2. Furthermore, in fashioning an answer for the respondent to confirm, the interviewer virtually appropriates from the respondent's cognitive realm certain decisions about relevant and possible answers. Still, the interviewer does produce a "question" for the respondent to "answer" and the respondent does so. The codable answer, then, can be seen as the respondent's. This is much less true in Segment 7, where the interviewer not only eliminates several answer categories but almost entirely appropriates the respondent's work of answering.
These measures are particularly important for surveys of attitudes and opinions, for which there is no "objective" way to measure the extent of response bias. The elicitation of concurrent protocols may create demand effects (for example, Biehal and Chakravarti, 1989). Consequently, it is not possible to assess the way in which a questionnaire will perform under field conditions, where subjects are not highly motivated and may be subject to many distractions. Thus, the elicitation of concurrent protocols is most appropriate for developmental pretests or for studies designed to detect subtle question defects.