Read e-book online Exploring Expect (Nutshell Handbooks) PDF

By Don Libes

Anticipate is instantly changing into part of each UNIX user's toolbox. It permits you to automate Telnet, FTP, passwd, rlogin, and hundreds of thousands of alternative purposes that regularly require human interplay. utilizing anticipate to automate those purposes will let you accelerate projects and, in lots of circumstances, remedy new difficulties that you just by no means might have even thought of sooner than. for instance, you should use anticipate to check interactive courses with out alterations to their interfaces. Or wrap interactive courses with Motif-like front-ends to regulate purposes by means of buttons, scrollbars, and different image components with out recompilation of the unique courses. you do not even want the resource code! anticipate works with distant functions, too. Use it to tie jointly web functions together with Telnet, Archie, FTP, Gopher, and Mosaic. Don Libes is the author of anticipate in addition to the writer of this booklet. In Exploring count on, he offers a complete instructional on all of Expect's good points, permitting you to place it instantly to paintings in your difficulties. In a down-to-earth and funny sort, he presents a variety of examples of not easy real-world purposes and the way they are often automatic utilizing anticipate to avoid wasting you time and cash. anticipate is the 1st of a brand new breed of courses according to Tcl, the software Command Language that's rocking the pc technological know-how group. This ebook offers an advent to Tcl and describes how anticipate applies Tcl's strength to the hot box of interplay automation. even if your curiosity is in anticipate or interplay automation otherwise you easily are looking to find out about Tcl and spot the way it has been utilized in actual software program, you'll find Exploring count on a treasure trove of easy-to-understand and important info.

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The elements of all of the lists are then returned in a new list. Compare the output from concat (above) and list (below). tclsh> list a b "Hello world" a b {Hello world} Here is another example of concat. Notice that whitespace inside elements is preserved. tclsh> concat a {b {c d}} a b {c d} In practice, concat is rarely used. However, it is helpful to understand concat because several commands exhibit concat-like behavior. For example, the expr command concatenates its arguments together before evaluating them—much in the style of concat.

This is precisely how I have written all of the other multi-line examples so far. Fortunately, this style looks a lot like another common style—the C language. Even if you are not used to C, it will be helpful if you adopt the C formatting style—just leave an open brace at the end of the current line and you can omit the backslashes. Consider the following three if commands: if {$count < 0} { puts "count is less than zero" } if {$count < 0} \ { puts "count is less than zero" } if {$count < 0} { puts "count is less than zero" } The first two examples are correct.

Assuming the existence of commands get_a_line and more_lines_in_file, your code might look something like this: while {[more_lines_in_file]} { set list "$list [get_a_line]" } The body builds up the list. Each time through the loop, a new line is appended to the end of the list. This is such a common operation that Tcl provides a command to do this more efficiently. The lappend command takes a variable name as its first argument and appends the remaining arguments. The example above could be rewritten: while {[more_lines_in_file]} { lappend list [get_a_line] } Notice that the first argument is not passed by value.

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