By Richard G. Bromley (auth.)
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Extra info for Trace Fossils: Biology, Taphonomy and Applications
2 Water content The void ratio and thus water content of a sediment is critical in controlling the strength of the substrate. 6 Above, four growth stages in Mercenaria mercenaria. Below, the first two stages depicted with shell-sizes enlarged to that of the adult phase above. This emphasizes the marked apparent change in substrate grainsize as experienced by the growing bivalve. A different burrowing technique is required in the 'coarse' and 'fine' sediments and a correspondingly different shell ornament is seen.
Yet, the bald facts as we know them tell us that U. caupo is a suspension feeder much like Chaetopterus variopedatus, whereas Echiurus echiurus is a detritus feeder. This contrast in trophic styles would seem unlikely, since the burrows of the two echiurans are so similar. g. Ewing and Davis 1967, figs 53-9; Hollister et al. 1975, fig. 15; Young et al. 1985; Gaillard 1991, fig. 3A and B). Already by 1970, Hiintzschel had compared some of these to trace fossils. Some of the structures are produced by polychaete worms and others may be traces or bodies of Xenophyophoria (Tendal 1972, pI.
Relic sediments of this kind are typically reworked by excavation, the compact form of the fabric precluding the use of compressive processes. These three categories cover increasing consolidation of the substrate, but do not involve cementation. Introduction of cement into pore spaces and the concommitant rigidifying of the substrate creates hardground; bio- 18 ANIMAL-SEDIMENT RELATIONSHIPS turbational processes cease and are replaced by bioerosional processes. The suffix -ground implies that the substrate is exposed at the depositional interface.